Welcome to Multimedia Presentation FoxPro Versus Java as Respectively obsolete Emerging Technologies

The full length video of this presentation can be accessed via:

The menu below contains the five segments of this presentation. This project aimed at investigating the emergence and demise of new technologies using FoxPro and Java as examples. This presentation includes the 5 sections outlined below and detailed in table 1. Each section is illustrated and captured by a related video presentation.
1.  Introduction to Foxpro and Java as respectively Obsolete and Emerging Technology.

2. Definition of Tetrad and application of tetrad on Foxpro and Java as respectively Obsolete and Emerging Technology.

3. Interviews with Decision Maker and End-User on adoption of Foxpro and Java.

4. Identification of the six driving forces of emerging technologies and their impact on Foxpro and Java.

5. The Verdict of History: The fate of FoxPro, the future of Java.

In addition, a comprehensive list of related transcripts with references and a list of the tools and websites used are included in this blog.Actual rubric will be sent to Doctor Thornburg via Email.

Segment Agenda
1 Introducing FoxPro as an Emerging Technology

Introducing FoxPro as Obsolete Technology

Introducing JAVA as an Emerging Technology


2 What is a Tetrad?

Tetrad on FoxPro as an Emerging Technology

Tetrad on FoxPro as Obsolete Technology

Tetrad on JAVA as an Emerging Technology

3 Interview with Decision Maker on FoxPro and Java

Interview with Software END USER on FoxPro and Java

4 The six Driving Forces of Emerging Technologies

FoxPro Versus The six Driving Forces of Emerging Technologies.

Java Versus The six Driving Forces of Emerging Technologies


5 The Verdict: Fate of FoxPro and Java

The Future, Where is java heading to?

Summary AND References

Why Java is the Future?



Table 1


  1. Segment 1 Transcript


Slide 1



My name is Joseph K. Vermeille and I am very pleased to welcome you to my Multimedia Presentation on FoxPro Versus Java as respectively Obsolete and Emerging Technologies.


This presentation was conceived, engineered, created, and deployed by your presenter, Joseph K. Vermeille, in partial fulfillment of course EDUC 8342, Emerging and Future Technologies, under the professorship of Doctor David Thornburg at Walden University.


Slide 2:


This is the agenda for this presentation. I will be introducing and defining:

The FoxPro Programming Language

The Java Programming Language.


I will illustrate the definition of tetrad with actual tetrads on

FoxPro as an Emerging Technology

FoxPro as an Obsolete Technology

JAVA as an Emerging Technology

Furthermore, this presentation will conduct Interview with

Application Systems Director James Malcafour on his experience with FoxPro and Java Software END USER Maria DelaRosa on her experience with FoxPro and Java. Following these interviews will be Analysis of FoxPro and Java in the context of the six driving forces of emerging technologies. That segment will have

Definition of the six Driving Forces of Emerging Technologies.

FoxPro Versus The six Driving Forces of Emerging Technologies.

Java Versus The six Driving Forces of Emerging Technologies.


The presentation will conclude with:

The Verdict, Fate of FoxPro and Java

The Future, Where is java heading to?




Slide 3

What is FoxPro?

According to WIKIPEDIA, “FoxPro is a text-based procedurally oriented programming language and DBMS, and it is also an object-oriented software programming, originally published by Fox Software and later by Microsoft, for MS-DOS, Windows, Macintosh, and UNIX. The final published release of FoxPro was 2.6. Development continued under the Visual FoxPro label, which in turn was discontinued in 2007” (Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FoxPro ).

I can deduct three distinct FoxPro moments from this definition.

  1. The first one starts with its origins as a product of Fox Software.
  2. The second one stems from the last version of the software at 2.6 under the name FoxPro.
  3. The last one started with the Visual FoxPro label which ended in 2007 with the planned, programmed death of the software with version 2.9.

On the left hand of this slide is a FoxPro Word Cloud partly generated by the text on the right. The Key terms which contribute to define FoxPro from the text are:


Microsoft Software








FoxPro: text-based procedurally oriented programming language

DBMS = Database Management System

Object-Oriented Software Programming Language

The software was originally published by Fox Software and later by Microsoft, for MS-DOS, Windows, Macintosh, and UNIX.

The final published release of FoxPro was 2.6 after which it was renamed VISUAL FOXPRO

Development continued under the Visual FoxPro label, until version 9.0, at which it was discontinued in 2007


For a complete timeline of the life cycle of Foxpro, please go to




Slide 4


What is Java?

WIKIPEDIA defined Java as A general-purpose computer programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.


Java is intended to let application developers “write once, run anywhere” (WORA), meaning that code that runs on one platform does not need to be recompiled to run on another. In other words, once an application has been written, it is ready to run on MAC, WINDOWS, LINUX, and elsewhere.

Java is, as of 2014, one of the most popular programming languages in use, particularly for client-server web applications, with a reported 9 million


(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Java_(programming_language) )

On the left hand of this slide is a Word Cloud partly generated by the text on the right. According to Educational Technology and Mobile Learning


“A word cloud is a graphical representation of word frequency. It basically features the prominent words that are so often cited in a piece of text” (retrieved from http://www.educatorstechnology.com/2012/06/best-10-free-word-cloud-tools-for.html )


From a Word Cloud, one can quickly grasp the theme or context of a text


The Key terms which contribute to define JAVA here are:





Byte code


Web Languages

Virtual Architecture




Slide 5:

According to John K. Waters’ Blog located at http://adtmag.com/blogs/watersworks/2014/12/java-caching.aspx, Miko Matsumura served as Chief Java Evangelist at Sun Microsystems in the late 90s. This picture is his rendition of the evolution of Java.

During an interview posted on John Waters’ blog on December 3rd, 2014 Miko Matsumura reportedly said:

“When people think about the Java Virtual Machine, they tend to think about a single machine. Back in the olden days of Java, it was like, it’s a Windows machine or it’s a Mac or it’s a Linux box. There was this mindset that the ‘machine’ was this monolithic, single operating system. But over time, that construct has become much more of a programmatic abstraction. When people deploy Java applications, it’s only a machine in a conceptual sense. Developers think of the Java machine as a machine just because that allows them not to break their heads.”

This graph captures the evolution of JAVA from a somewhat Darwinist perspective to become the robust system it is today”.




  1. Segment 2 Transcript


Slide 2


In Laureate Education (2014f),  Doctor David Thornburg reported that the tetrad was developed by McLuhan as part of his Laws of Media. Doctor Thornburg defined the TETRAD followed:

“A graphic that has four quadrants to it. And the reason for the four quadrants is his assertion that every medium does four things and does them simultaneously. The first quadrant addresses what it is that this technology does that’s new. What does it enhance? What does it make it possible that we weren’t able to do before? Second quadrant, what does it obsolete? Third quadrant, what does this new technology does that rekindles something or retrieves something from the past, sometimes distant past? And fourth, it sets the stage for its own reversal or demise sometime in the future”.


In the tetrad, the top left quadrant references Enhancement, Innovation; the top right quadrant refers to obsolescence; the lower left quadrant will hold what has been rekindled, and lower right quadrant relate to the self-reversal of the innovation.


Slide 3:


I am here presenting a TETRAD ON FOXPRO AS AN EMERGING TECHNOLOGY, WHEN THE SOFTWARE WAS EMERGING BETWEEN 1989 AND 199 ACCORDING TO http://www.foxprohistory.org/foxprotimeline.htm

As can be seen of the first Quadrant, FOXPRO ENHANCED

  1. Multiplatform Development (DOS,


  1. Client Server Programming
  2. Self-Contained RDBMS. Extension

Of affordable RDBMS to small


  1. Became a Menace to Microsoft Access, .NET

(Prior to FoxPro acquisition by


  1. Mew generation of developers

On the Second quadrant we can see that

FOXPRO Obsoleted:

  1. Dbase
  2. FoxBASE
  3. Clipper
  4. Filepro
  5. Single Platform development tools

On the Quadrant we observe that FOXPRO Rekindled

  1. DBase II, dBase III, dBase IV, FoxBASE
  2. Platform Specific Software Development (DOS, UNIX, MAC)

On the Fourth and last Quadrant, we see that FOXPRO, AS AN EMERGING TECHNOLOGY, and Reversed:

  1. Limitations of RDBMS tools combining DATA and Solid Programming functionalities.
  2. Limitation for Cross Platform RDBMS tool from a single IDE.
  3. The myth of Microsoft supremacy in RDBMS market.



I am here presenting a TETRAD ON FOXPRO AS AN EMERGING TECHNOLOGY, WHEN THE SOFTWARE WAS EMERGING BETWEEN 1989 AND 199 ACCORDING TO http://www.foxprohistory.org/foxprotimeline.htm

As can be seen of the first Quadrant, FOXPRO ENHANCED

  1. Multiplatform Development (DOS,


  1. Client Server Programming
  2. Self-Contained RDBMS. Extension

Of affordable RDBMS to small


  1. Became a Menace to Microsoft Access, .NET

(Prior to FoxPro acquisition by


  1. Mew generation of developers

On the Second quadrant we can see that

FOXPRO Obsoleted:

  1. Dbase
  2. FoxBASE
  3. Clipper
  4. Filepro
  5. Single Platform development tools

On the Quadrant we observe that FOXPRO Rekindled

  1. DBase II, dBase III, dBase IV, FoxBASE
  2. Platform Specific Software Development (DOS, UNIX, MAC)

On the Fourth and last Quadrant, we see that FOXPRO, AS AN EMERGING TECHNOLOGY, and Reversed:

  1. Limitations of RDBMS tools combining DATA and Solid Programming functionalities.
  2. Limitation for Cross Platform RDBMS tool from a single IDE.
  3. The myth of Microsoft supremacy in RDBMS market.



Slide 4

When in 2007 Microsoft decided to stop THE PROGRESSION OF FOXPRO BEYOND VERSION 9.0, it was a death sentence,


Per Quadrant 1, the demise of FOXPRO Enhances:

Reality of Software life cycle

  1. The need to consider alternatives
  2. Evidence of Microsoft Arrogance and Supremacy
  3. The necessity to keep Data (Backend) and Client (front-end) independent
  4. Another reason to go Open Source
  5. FoxPro as Open Source
  6. Quest for alternatives to FOXPRO


Per Quadrant 2, the demise of FOXPRO Obsoletes

  1. Availability of Data Base Development Tool for quick self-contained                       Database development
  2. Blind trust in Microsoft
  3. FoxPro Programming skills set
  4. Affordable RDBMS for small businesses

 Per Quadrant 3, the demise of FOXPRO Rekindles

  1. Software life cycle
  2. Client and Data Independence as best practice
  3. VB, SQL Server, .NET,
  4. Mistrust of Microsoft on FoxPro Acquisition to protect its turf .NET, ACCESS
  5. History: Word vs WordPerfect
  6. History: Netscape vs Internet Explorer



Per Quadrant 4, the demise of FOXPRO Reverses

  1. Fear and Confusion
  2. Do nothing alternative
  3. Conversion from FoxPro
  4. Migration to other tools, Data extraction, and other tools
  5. Emergence of Java and other Open Source Cross Platform tools for Cloud, Mobile, and SaaS Computing.


Slide 6

In LUKE 9 VERSE 60, JESUS SAID: “Let the dead bury their own dead, but you go and proclaim the kingdom of God.“

FOXPRO IS DEAD, WE CAN SAY THANKS YOU LORD JAVA! FoxPro Programmers and Business Owners should now migrate to JAVA and endorse this new Gospel!

Well, THIS IS A Tetrad on JAVA as an Emerging Technology

In Quadrant 1, we find that JAVA Enhances

  1. Write Once, Run Anywhere“ (WORA)
  2. Platform-independence. Multiple configurations for different types of platform
  3. Free and open source software, (FOSS)
  4. Running applications “on everything from laptops to data centers, game consoles to scientific supercomputers”.
  5. Mobile communications. 3 billion mobile phones run Java
  6. Just-in-time compilation


QUADRANT 2 REVEALS THAT JAVA as an Emerging Technology Obsoletes:

Standalone Applications Development

  1. Procedural Programming
  2. Perl,
  3. COBOL
  4. C, C++

 Quadrant 3 shows that JAVA as an Emerging Technology Rekindles:

  1. Pascal
  2. C,
  3. C++
  4. COBOL
  5. OOP
  6. Multiplatform Programming



 And Quadrant 4 reveals that JAVA as an Emerging Technology Reverses:

  1. DART
  2. HTLM5
  3. Android
  4. Java 9


  1. Segment 3 Transcript


  1. Transcript of interviews with Decision Maker

Mr. Malcafour, Can you provide some information about your background as an Information Technology Professional?

I would like first to thank you for your interests in my views as a contribution to your research. I want to wish you the best in your academic and professional endeavors.

Well, telling you about my y background as an IT (Information Technology Professional will take us back to a quarter of century ago when I started working as a staff accountant and later on as a business analyst with another institution. I must emphasize that in College, I was a majoring in Accounting with a minor in MIS (Management Information Systems). Most of my technology training came from “on the job training” or “job related professional development”. I did however have the basics from College. Those basic skills included word-processing, spreadsheet, Databases, and COBOL Programming. 25 years ago, that was 1989, and my job was to collect, capture, and document the actual user experience. I was like an intermediary between the users and developers, and later become a Programmer with assignments using COBOL, dBase, and FoxBASE which later on became respectively FoxPro and Visual FoxPro. From there I became Programmer until I became Director of Application Systems Development which has been my current position for the last five years.

  1. Obviously you have been a witness of the Emergence of FoxPro as a new Technology. What is your recollection of the early years of FoxPro Adoption?

My first recollection goes back to the similarities of FoxPro with Dbase and FoxBASE environments from which it derived. The language was practically the same and they share the same data file structures with the extension DBF. I remember that FoxPro 1.0 was released in 1989, and the product was acquired by Microsoft in 1992 The first most powerful version of FoxPro was 2.6 which came out in 1993 and to date we are still using that version to accomplish certain tasks.


  1. You are still using FoxPro 2.6 which is now 21 years old?

Yes, we are but I need to situate this reality within the evolutionary context of the life cycle of the software.

  1. Interesting. Can you situate that context within the context of how, when, and why you did you come to the decision to adopt FoxPro as a development tool in your organization?

Need was the first criterion for me to recommend FoxPro as a software development tool in my organization. We needed a tool that was reliable, robust, affordable, and flexible enough for the conception, development, and implementation of our business processes. We needed to develop our own tool to serve multiplatform users which included MAC, UNIX, DOS, AND Windows users in a client server environment.. In addition we needed a tool with a comprehensibly short learning curve for the experienced team of programmers I was managing. The year was 1995 and FoxPro 2.6, as a new Microsoft product, was the immediate answer to our needs.

A few years later, after the release of subsequent releases of Visual FoxPro between 1995 and 1997, I decided to migrate the application from FoxPro 2.6 to Visual FoxPro in order to meet certain technical requirements. Nevertheless, to fasten the migration process, we needed to avoid having to redesign every screen in order to meet the requirements of the Visual FoxPro environment. This is the context which keeps us using FoxPro 2.6 to this date, 21 years after its original release. The Screen Writer from FoxPro 2.6 enables programmers to generate actual programs from visually generated screens.

  1. What version of Visual FoxPro did you migrate to?

That was version 6.0 and it was our last FoxPro upgrade.

  1. So your staff never had a chance to use 9.0, the last FoxPro version.

No, FoxPro is dead, it makes no sense risking using dying software

  1. Indeed, In March 2007, Microsoft announced that there will be no VFP 10,[8] thus making VFP9 (released to manufacturing on December 17, 2004) the last commercial VFP release from Microsoft. Microsoft also announced that support for FoxPro will end in January 2015 (Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visual_FoxPro ). What do you think of this decision?

I believe that the decision to retire FoxPro is a strategic one on the part of Microsoft Corporation. May be they are trying to silence FoxPro in order to push new similar or existing other products. Regardless, that decision is unfair to the millions of customers out there, developers, business owners, and end-users who have invested their time and resources in FoxPro.

  1. What was the impact of Microsoft Corporation decision’s to retire FoxPro on your organization?

Once we became aware of the decision to retire FoxPro, my team and I decided the following:

  1. No more upgrade to other version of FoxPro.
  2. We needed to find alternatives.
  3. We had to make a compelling case to the executive branch for support and funds to migrate our FoxPro proprietary software to more stable environments.
  4. And what was the outcome?

There were two outcomes which led to the migration of our FoxPro resources to two different environments, an Oracle ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) System and online modular proprietary software tools developed in Java by my team of programmers. I do not want to go into specifics but I must emphasize that while the ERP System could accommodate much functionality, certain processes had to me developed in house, and Java was the best alternative to FoxPro in this regard.

  1. Why did Java emerge as a replacement to FoxPro?

Many factors explain the emergence of Java as an alternative to FoxPro.

  1. Java is the number one Programming Language for Enterprise Development and web application.
  2. Java is flexible enough multiplatform development.
  3. There are millions of competent Java Developers available.
  4. Java meets the requirements of the present and the next version, Java 9, is being written to meet the future face to face.
  5. Last but not least, Java is Open Source, and its current owner, Oracle Corporation cannot do to Java what Microsoft did to FoxPro.
  6. Was Java the only alternative to FoxPro?

No, Java was the best alternative for me but there are many other products out there which can replace FoxPro. I can for instance name Lianja (Retrieved from http://www.lianja.com ) and Servoy (Retrieved from http://servoy.com).

  1. Is your organization looking beyond Java?

We are currently contemplating the universe of cloud computing and I am glad Java is compatible with the clouds. Oracle is currently offering Java Cloud Services. We are not currently looking beyond Java but you never know when the next technological innovation in this field will emerge. That is why are keeping an open mind and an open heart by keeping our data as independent as possible from the client.

  1. What is the overall strategy for technology adoption by your organization? Does your institution adopt new technologies as soon as they are released or do you have a wait and see attitude?

Here, our overall strategy responds to three fundamental concepts

  1. Reliability which mandates that we are consistent in providing our services.
  2. Recoverability which requires that we are fit to quickly recover from disaster.
  3. And Adaptability which defines are capabilities to face changing technological and business climates, including technological innovations today and tomorrow.

In other words, in order to us to cope with this agenda, we stand between the early and late majority of adopters. This balance is critical for us in the fulfillment of our mission.

  1. This was my last question. I truly thank you for the interview. As promised, I will gladly send to you a copy of the finished product.
  1. Transcript of interviews with Software End User:

I must thank you, Ms. Maria Delarosa, for accepting to give me this interview. Can you provide some information about your background as a software user in general?

My experience as software end-user actually started while I was in college during the mid-1990s with the release of Windows 1995 which created something like a revolution in the software industry. Many people for the first time found themselves obligated to upgrade their computers in order to be able to use the new operating system which was very demanding in terms of memory and disk space. I had to have the family computer upgraded with a new hard drive and additional memory. My real experience started with the task of reinstalling Microsoft Office at home and skill which paved the way for me to develop future interests as a competent and experienced end-user.

For how long have you been at your current position as Budget Director?

I started working here in 2000 as a Staff Accountant and was promoted to the positions of Assistant Director and Budget Director respectively in 2008 and 2010. But since I started in 2000, I have been playing a major role as an end-user with the Financial Systems. I was there when the system was migrated from FoxPro 2.6 to Visual FoxPro and later on from Visual FoxPro to Java.

Can you describe your role with respect to the financial application modules developed in FoxPro?

I can say that the FoxPro and Visual FoxPro versions of the Financial Systems were Client-Server Applications which ran under the DOS, WINDOWS, UNIX, and MAC Operating Systems. From my ability to detect and report bugs, to my suggestions on the needs for enhancements, improved performance, and better quality reporting on the budget module, I was progressively acknowledged as a key end user until I became Budget Director.

Did you know FoxPro?

I did learn the user functionalities of the software and the basics of the language. FoxPro was shipped with user manuals and developers documentation. Such efforts greatly help in my communication and interaction with developers.

How did you react to the news of the end-of-life of FoxPro?

I had mixed feelings about it. First, I felt betrayed due to the efforts I had made in learning the software. When that news came in 2007, I was investigating the features of FoxPro 9.0, especially the functionalities on Application Development for the Web. Nevertheless, I embraced the news of the demise of FoxPro as a wonderful opportunity to learn new tools and to have the entire budget module redesigned from scratch.

And the new tool was Java. Can you describe your role with respect to the financial applications developed in Java?

I worked closely with the programmer in charge of the module and we have today a budget module witch meets all of our needs as an institution. We started from scratch with pen and paper by identifying functionalities and reports that were to stay as they were, those that needed to be changed and the scope of the desired modifications, and new features and reports that did not exist. We held meetings every Fridays to check on progress being made and revise requirements. Serving as a liaison between Applications Development Team and the user’s community, I am happy to report now we have a budget tool which meets all of our objectives without the need for cross platform and connectivity patches as was the case with FoxPro.

What differences can you establish between the FoxPro and Java versions of the financial applications?

With the FoxPro version, we had a client server application which was built over time. In that case, the application was using files downloaded on the local computer to connect to the main server. Changes for one operating system had to be customized for every other one. In the Java version, we have a web based application which runs on web browsers, anywhere, anytime, irrespective of the nature of the operating system. In addition, changes in the code stay the same for all operating systems.

Thank you very much for your contribution.

  1. Segment 4 Transcript


Slide 1

Hi, my name is Jennifer Digital. I will be conducting this section of this Multimedia Presentation on the SIX FORCES THAT DRIVE EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES.

How can we explain the circumstances that led to the emergence and obsolescence of FoxPro and the emergence of Java?

This question leads to consideration of the six forces that Doctor David Thornburg (Laureate Education, 2014j) identified as drivers of emerging technologies. This section of the presentation will introduce and define those six forces and apply them to analyze the evolution of FoxPro and Java and the demise of Java.

The forces identified by Doctor Thornburg are:

First:     Evolutionary Technologies on the top left corner of the screen.

Second: Rhymes of History represented by the flag on the middle left side of the screen.

Third:   Disruptive Technologies represented by the light bulb on the bottom left side of the screen.

Fourth: Science Fiction, represented by the camera on the top right corner of the screen.

Fifth:     Increasing Returns, represented by the icon on the middle right corner of the screen.

Sixth and last: Red Queens, represented by the star at the bottom right corner of the screen.


Slide 2:

This slide is introducing the Evolutionary, the Rhymes of History, and the Disruptive Forces

First:     Evolutionary Technologies on the top left corner of the screen.

EVOLUTION is the key term. Evolutionary Technologies develop overtime. Doctor Thornburg sees them as PROGRESSION, GROWTH from previous technologies.

Second: Rhymes of History represented by the flag on the middle left side of the screen.

The Rhymes of History Force links the root of a new Technology to some distant past. In some ways, one can perceive in EMAILS the essence of the mission of the PIGEON MESSENGERS.

Third:   Disruptive Technologies represented by the light bulb on the bottom left side of the screen.

Disruptive Technologies refer to those sudden, unexpected new MODUS OPERANDI that invade the socio-cultural milieu to change everything. ATM, DNA, and Cellular Technologies are great examples. ATM, DNA, and Cellular Technologies are great examples OF Disruptive Technologies.


Slide 3:

This slide is introducing the Evolutionary, the Rhymes of History, and the Disruptive Forces

First:     Evolutionary Technologies on the top left corner of the screen.

EVOLUTION is the key term. Evolutionary Technologies develop overtime. Doctor Thornburg see them as PROGRESSION, GROWTH from previous technologies.

Second: Rhymes of History represented by the flag on the middle left side of the screen.

The Rhymes of History Force links the root of a new Technology to some distant past. In some ways, one can perceive in EMAILS the essence of the mission of the PIGEON MESSENGERS.

Third:   Disruptive Technologies represented by the light bulb on the bottom left side of the screen.

Disruptive Technologies refer to those sudden, unexpected new MODUS OPERANDI that invade the socio-cultural milieu to change everything. ATM, DNA, and Cellular Technologies are great examples. ATM, DNA, and Cellular Technologies are great examples OF Disruptive Technologies.

Slide 4:


NO: FoxPro does not have a Science Fiction Root.


YES: FoxPro rendered OBSOLETE Dbase, FoxBASE, Clipper, Filepro to become king in the PC based Database market.

Did FoxPro benefit from the Red Queen Phenomenon?

NO: FoxPro never had a Competitor running neck to neck for supremacy.

Slide 5:


YES, like FoxPro, Java emerged as an Evolutionary Technology from Pascal, C, C++, Perl, Procedural Programming, Object Oriented Programming, and Standalone Applications.

Is the emergence of Java related to the Rhymes of HISTORY?

YES, like FoxPro, the English-like language and syntax of JAVA are reminiscent of the characteristics of earlier Programming Languages such as Fortran, Pascal, C, C++, Perl, Pascal, C, C++, Perl.


YES, has been a Disruptive Technology in the Programming Language industry due to its adaptability and compatibility with other disruptive technologies or paradigms such as Cloud Computing, Software as a Service (SaaS), and Bring Your Own Device (BYOD).


Slide 6:

Does Java have its roots to Science Fiction?

  1. The emergence of JAVA is in no way linked to Science Fiction. It is however been used widely to develop science fiction games and robots.

Is the success of Java the outcome of Increasing Returns?

YES, Java as shadowed previously existing and newly developed Programming Languages to become the TOP one, “The Chosen One”, as a result of the Increasing Returns Force.

Is the success of Java the outcome of the RED QUEENS COMPETITION?

NO – At least NOT YET- The Red Queen situation calls for two competitive products running neck and neck. Currently, JAVA is the lone star ahead. God knows for how long with threats from DART and ANDROID by Google, HTML5 from the Open Source Community.

  1. Segment 6 Transcript


Slide 1:




Should we Mourn

Or Celebrate!

I am not sure!


Slide 2:

My Eulogy of FoxPro!

  1. FOXPRO, The victim, was not sick.

I knew him. He has been my bread winner since the early 1990’s.

My first real job as a Programmer was through him, 1992, at Watts 800 Inc., in Evansville, Indiana.

For T A D Exterminating Inc.., in Greenlawn, New York, in 1995, I designed CEMIS, USING FOXPRO 2.6.

To this date, January 9th, 2015, CEMIS is running fine, TO THE FULL SATISFACTION OF ITS OWNER.

In 1997, thanks to FoxPro, I landed the best job I have been blessed with to this day.

Latter today, January 9th, 2015, I must deploy some new enhancements at the same job using FOXPRO.

Even after his death,



The guy was in plain form,

Ready for easy and affordable development for the WEB, Software as a Service, Telephony applications, and mobile devices.

They killed him.

FoxPro died a Death By Design.

The Death came from its own Maker.

It was Filicide.

The act of killing one’s own child.

Filicide, YES Filicide, FOXPRO DIED BY Filicide!

But Planned Obsolescence is a business practice, an art, A CORE COMPETENCY mastered by Microsoft since DOS 1.0.

Some will call it Corporate Greed!

Now you know why every year

We have a new version of Microsoft Office!        

A New Version of Microsoft Everything!

REST IN PEACE FOXPRO! According to McLuhan’s Laws of Media, I know you will come back some day, to REKINDLE THE PAST!







This is the agenda for this presentation.

  1. Introducing FoxPro.
  2. Introducing Java.
  3. What is a Tetrad?
  4. Tetrads on FoxPro as an Emerging Technology.
  5. Tetrads on FoxPro as an Obsolete Technology.
  6. Tetrads on JAVA as an Emerging Technology.
  7. Interview with Software Director on FoxPro and Java.
  8. Interview with Software USER on FoxPro and Java.
  9. The six Driving Forces of Emerging Technologies.
  10. FoxPro Versus The six Driving Forces of Emerging Technologies.
  11. Java Versus The six Driving Forces of Emerging Technologies.
  12. The Future, Where is java heading to?
  13. Summary.
  14. References.


Laureate Education (Producer). (2014a). David Thornburg: Disruptive technologies [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Laureate Education (Producer). (2014d). David Thornburg: Evolutionary technologies [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Laureate Education (Producer). (2014e). David Thornburg: Increasing returns [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Laureate Education (Producer). (2014f). David Thornburg: McLuhan’s Tetrad [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Laureate Education (Producer). (2014g). David Thornburg: Red queens [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Laureate Education (Producer). (2014h). David Thornburg: Rhymes of history [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Laureate Education (Producer). (2014i). David Thornburg: Science fiction [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Laureate Education (Producer). (2014j). David Thornburg: Six forces that drive emerging technologies[Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations (5th ed.). New York, NY: Free Press.

List of technologies and websites used:


Video On Demand is Queen and DVD Obsolete

If James Carville (retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki was asked to opine on the fate of the DVD in competition with Video On Demand, I am quite confident that his response would be, “It is the Cloud Stupid”. This blog seeks to inquire about that very phenomenon, the state of the competition between the DVD and Video Streaming which Alomari and Sumari (2011) divides into two categories: Live video streaming and Video on Demand (VoD). First, I will explain why this competition qualifies as an illustration of Increasing Returns (Thornburg, 2013c) instead of Red Queens (Thornburg, 2013g) with supporting examples. Second and last, I will provide my rationale for classifying DVDs in the Closure/Obsolescence side and Video On Demand in the Extension/Enhancement quadrant of McLuhan’s tetrad (Thornburg, 2013f).

1. The DVD vs. Video On Demand Competition: Increasing Returns, No Red Queens:



On March 22, 2013, under the title, “How Video On Demand Is Killing The DVD” (Retrieved from http://www.real.com/resources/video-on-demand-services/ ), Geoff Talbot wrote:
Unfortunately, the cruel hands of fate that smote the VHS are about to deal a similar blow to your fabulous collection of DVD’s. With access to the Internet widely available, the bandwidth it supports, an unlimited amount of videos available online, and on demand services just waiting to serve up the movie of your choice at the moment you want it, the need for a way to physically take a video with you is quickly diminishing.

After identifying Amazon Video On Demand, Netflix, Hulu Plus, Vudu, and Crackle as the as key Video On Demand enterprises worth watching, the article concluded “Once more you are going to the video store to rent and not buy A movie; the only difference is the video store is now in the cloud and you can access the content from just about anywhere” (Retrieved from http://www.real.com/resources/video-on-demand-services/ ).
Thornburg (2013c) defined Increasing Returns as a powerful force invented by Brian Arthur and which drives the emergence of technologies using “Chaos and Complexity Theory” from a non-linear perspective. In other words, the “Increasing Returns” address situations where “you have a couple of innovations that hit the market around the same time, it’s possible that one of them will just by chance capture people’s imagination more than the other”. On the one hand, the origins of Video On Demand go back to 1994 with a service from Cambridge Digital Interactive which “ provided video and data to 250 homes and a number of schools connected to the Cambridge Cable network (later part of NTL, now Virgin Media)” (Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Video_on_demand#History ). On The other hand, DVDs or Digital Video Disks were “invented and developed by Philips, Sony, Toshiba, and Panasonic in 1995” (Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DVD ) to quickly become the ideal medium to store and distribute music, movies, and other forms of digital data. In the beginning, slow and expensive internet traffic drove consumers to adopt DVDs over Video On Demand services. Those days are now gone, chased away by the fast and powerful internet environment.
Thornburg (2013d) offered the Red Queen as another powerful force which drives technological innovations. Originated from the “the Looking Glass, this story by Lewis Carroll”, the concept illustrates the situation of two competitors who, after overcoming the rest of the competition, find themselves running “as fast as” they “can to stay in the same place”. This is definitely not the case between the DVD and Video On Demand. Or, if there is a Red Queen in this context, it is Video On Demand.

2. The DVD is Obsolesce and Video On Demand is Enhancement.

The DVD is currently standing as an obsolete technology in many ways. The first use of the term Cloud Computing which has come to define the fast internet of today was back traced to either 1996 or 2006 (retrieved from http://www.technologyreview.com/news/425970/who-coined-cloud-computing/ ). From those years to date, the clouds have become the favorite vehicle for customers to access digital content. I guess if I was again to ask James Carville why the laptop I bought last month from Dell came with no Disk Drive, no CD and no DVD player, his response would have been the same: “It is the Cloud Stupid!” By the same token, since customers are finding it is more convenient to just click and play or just press a key on their remote control to access digital content, it but appropriate to classify Video On Demand in the Enhancement quadrant of McLuhan’s tetrad (Thornburg, 2013f).
Alomari S, Sumari P. Statistical Information of the Increased Demand for Watch the VOD with the Increased Sophistication in the Mobile Devices,Communications and Internet Penetration in Asia. [serial online]. December 9, 2011;Available from: arXiv, Ipswich, MA. Accessed November 12, 2014.
Alomari, S. A., & Sumari, P. (2011). Statistical Information of the Increased Demand for Watch the VOD with the Increased Sophistication in the Mobile Devices,Communications and Internet Penetration in Asia. doi:10.5121/ijma.2011.3415
Arthur, W. B. (1996). Increasing Returns and the New World of Business. Harvard Business Review, 74(4), 100-109.
CDs and DVDs to go the way of the LP. (2003). Electronic Library, 21(6), 621.
Laureate Education (Producer). (2014e). David Thornburg: Increasing returns [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.
Laureate Education (Producer). (2014g). David Thornburg: Red queens [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.
Thornburg, D. (2013d). Red queens, butterflies, and strange attractors: Imperfect lenses into emergent technologies

Google Gass, a Disruptive Technology for the Next Fifty Years

You may be doing something very well and suddenly, out of nowhere, something new comes up and changes everything, such are the terms used by Doctor Thornburg in the video where he described Disruptive Technologies as wild cards, forces that change everything unexpectedly. He further describes such technologies as having the same functionality as an existing technology but “functions more efficiently, and then obsoletes that technology” (Laureate Education, 2014a).  To illustrate, the author offered the transistor that “replaced the vacuum tube”,  “Light-emitting diode and liquid crystal technology” which is “replacing the CRT”, and “CDs and  Internet audio “ that “replaced live bands”. Doctor Thornburg concluded the video by warning that “New technologies are always susceptible to unanticipated “wild card” disruptive technologies”.  The concept of disruptive innovation was first introduced by Harvard professor Clayton M. Christensen as “The phenomenon by which an innovation transforms an existing market or sector by introducing simplicity, convenience, accessibility, and affordability where complication and high cost are the status quo. Initially, a disruptive innovation is formed in a niche market that may appear unattractive or inconsequential to industry incumbents, but eventually the new product or idea completely redefines the industry.  (Retrieved from http://www.christenseninstitute.org/key-concepts/disruptive-innovation-2/ ).

It is from this awareness, in the context of the very nature of disruptive technologies; this blog will focus on Google Glass. First, I will introduce Google Glass and some of the many applications so far attributed to it. Second, I will expose its nature and actual potentials as a disruptive technology. Third I will assess the impact of this technology in the context other technologies it is likely to displace or render obsolete. Fourth, this blog will look into some of the possible social implications of Google Glass in Education and Training. Fifth and last, I speculate on Google Glass life expectancy before another disruptive technology moves in to replace it.

What is Google Glass?

Wikipedia defines Google Glass as “a type of wearable technology with an optical head-mounted display (OHMD) developed by Google with the mission of producing a mass-market ubiquitous computer” (Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Google_Glass ). Google itself suggests the following among the activities this new product can accomplish” Be active, Explore the World, Live Lighter” (Retrieved from https://www.google.com/glass/start/what-it-does ) to illustrate with biking, golfing, travelling, taking pictures, web surfing, texting, talking, playing music, reading the news just to name a few of the many features and uses of the product. For a better idea of the product, I suggest watching this YouTube video by Marques Brownlee (Retrieved from http://youtu.be/elXk87IKgCo ) which gives a wonderful consumer experience along with actual technological details of the product. Indeed Google glass is a computer and on a computer, you can run any type of application. Any conceivable software can be built to run on Google Glass, and that versatility is corner stone of its life expectancy. In his video, Marques Brownlee demonstrated how one can take pictures, record videos, navigate (walking, driving), make calls, sends messages, search Google, and all of that hands free using Google Glass. In “Google Glass: 10 use cases for wearable technology”, Khidr Suleman identified the following 10 areas where Google Glass can be effectively used: Healthcare Airports, Augmented reality, Extreme sports, Language translation, Navigation, Accessibility/help for people with disabilities, Training, repair and inspection, Police and Military, and Pornography (Retrieved from http://www.itpro.co.uk/mobile/21581/google-glass-10-use-cases-for-wearable-technology ).

Nature of Google Glass as a Disruptive Technology.

The functionalities and features I have thus far documented feeds the impression that Google is sending a clear and loud message that many of the devices we are currently using, including but not limited to the computer, the laptop, the cell phone, the watch, the camera, and so many more, should be getting ready to leave the scene in the very same fashion cellphone came and buried pay phones and beepers. This is exactly the type of phenomena Doctor David Thornburg (Laureate Education, 2014a) and Professor Clayton M. Christensen (Retrieved from http://www.christenseninstitute.org/key-concepts/disruptive-innovation-2/) referred to wild cards in their thinking on the brutality of the forces of  technological innovations. With Google Glass, everything, including operating room procedures, should be on warning. The pictures of doctors in the operating using Google Glass to communicate in real time with colleagues elsewhere are but indicative of what the future is about to be. In “Google Glass Enters the Operating Room”, ANAHAD O’CONNOR  wrote on June 1st, 2014 in the New York Times:

Some hospitals see Glass as a relatively low-cost and versatile innovation, much like      smartphones and tablets, which more than half of all health care providers use to get             access to patient data and other medical information.

Dr. Christopher Kaeding, an orthopedic surgeon at Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, performing an A.C.L. operation while wearing Google Glass.Credit Matthew Craig for The New York Times


http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2014/06/03/science/03SUBJPGLAS/03SUBJPGLAS-tmagArticle.jpg Matthew Craig for The New York Times

Technologies Threatened by Google Glass.

The very aggressive, overpowering,  and holistic nature of Google Glass is marking for deletion many of the technologies we are using on a daily basis. I will simply name a list of candidates here.

  1. The Cell phone
  2. The laptop
  3. The Camera
  4. The GPS as we know it
  5. Fax machines
  6. Smartphones (http://www.forbes.com/sites/haydnshaughnessy/2013/03/03/does-google-glass-spell-the-end-of-the-smartphone-wars )
  7. Audio Guards (Retrieved from http://mashable.com/2014/06/19/google-glass-museums )
  8. Phones and Tables (http://www.quora.com/Will-smart-glasses-like-Google-Glass-replace-phones-and-tablets )
  9. Less Doctors in the Operating Room.
  10. Kindles and Ebooks.



Potentials of Google Glass in Education and Training.

Under  the title Wearable Educational Technology, this website (Retrieved from http://www.online-phd-programs.org/google-glass ) proposes a long list of actual areas or domains of  applications of such wearable technologies as Google Glass. I will only name a few here:

  1. Online Education
  2. Language Learning
  3. Students orientation
  4. Field trips
  5. Medical training
  6. Students orientation
  7. Evernote
  8. Screen casting
  9. Practice videos recording
  10. Remote academic collaboration

Google Glass Life Cycle:

Like any new, emerging, or emerged technology, Google Glass does have a life cycle waiting in the horizon of the end of this century, unless something wild and unexpected was to show up and disrupt its evolution. Despite speculations of its possible displacement by such products as Android Wear smartwatches  (Retrieved from http://arstechnica.com/gadgets/2014/06/android-wear-smartwatches-make-google-glass-obsolete ), it remains my prediction that like holography, Google Glass will be leading and influencing technological innovations through the next fifty years.


Laureate Education (Producer). (2014a). David Thornburg: Disruptive technologies [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

My Blog on Telephony and Messaging as Rhymed By History

From Foot Messaging to Digital Transmission:

Doctor David Thornburg identified another force that really has impacted the emergence of technologies” (Laureate Education (Producer). (2014h). He called it “the rhymes of history”.  Such a force must have been the influencing factor to such technologies as the “hub print copy centers” (retrieved from http://hubprint.com/fax) or cloud printing (Riofrio, 2013) as a new name for the old post office or the messenger on the mule from antiquity. Examples closer to us revolve around telephony by taking into consideration the  invention and evolution of the telegraph, the telephone, the beeper, the fax machine, VoIP (Voice over IP), and cellular telephony, including but not limited to instant messages, text messages, voice mails, and e-commerce from a bill-paying functionality perspective.

From The Animal and

Foot Messengers to The Pony Express, to The Couriers

The practice of using messengers or couriers to transmit messages from one point to another has been used throughout history.  Prior to the advent of vehicular transportation , mail used to  be delivered by animals including Pigeons, Dogs, Camels, and Reindeers (retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mail_delivery_by_animal ).


https://encrypt ed-tbn1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcS4E2R47FTcdlQauoyR-2t14zrBRlhREIrAjF4E1DtfxP309JHp

Picture 1

Picture 1 from https://encrypted-tbn1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcS4E2R47FTcdlQauoyR-2t14zrBRlhREIrAjF4E1DtfxP309JHp


Picture 2

Picture 2 from: https://encrypted-tbn1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTU0V7iiIFh5oxw6ivwFyF1RtCZNpTK5PHjbLka1iqsDJQ9uFYE4Q

Picture 3

Figures 3  from http://www.couriersregister.com/resources/images/page_images/history1.jpg

Picture 4


Picture 5

Picture 5 (Retrieved from http://www.premier-nyc.com/images/messenger.jpg )

In the heart of New York City, businesses are currently using foot messengers and bikers to deliver messages and packages to other businesses and to individuals  as illustrated in figures 5 and 6.

Figure 6

Picture 6 (Retrieved from https://encrypted-tbn1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRfOIOX2WNLm4m-qjaNy5wowUDaeRt4l6_AUn4_Vvqzo28fmloL)

Picture 7

Picture 7: Frank E. Webner
Pony Express rider ca. 1861

The Story of the Pony Express is a true illustration (Fig 7) according to Johnson (2001). Of its beginning it is reported: “The Pony Express made its first run on April 3, 1860 and immediately captured the imagination of the nation. It had been established to provide a speedy method of delivering mail over a two thousand mile route that stretched between St. Joseph Missouri and Sacramento, California (Retrieved from http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/ponyexpress.htm ).

According to the Washington Times (2011), Bin Laden used Couriers which enabled him to hide. He was finally caught after one of his “bodyguard’s satellite phone calls helped lead US forces to hiding place (Tohid, 2011).


The history of couriers goes back hundreds of years now and it has changed dramatically  over that period of time. The services have changed with a wider variety than ever and             also how the goods are transported has developed over the years; going from being drawn   by horse and cart to being flown internationally (retrieved from             http://www.couriersregister.com/history_of_couriers.php ):

The Telegraph

As one of the inventions which came to fasten human communication, the telegraph was “Developed in the 1830s and 1840s by Samuel Morse (1791-1872) and other inventors” to  revolutionize long-distance communication (retrieved from http://www.history.com/topics/inventions/telegraph ). The first message from the first telegraph, “What hath God wrought.” (Samuel Morse, 1999), was successfully transmitted “from Washington D.C. to Baltimore, Maryland in May of 1844. Such an accomplishment came as a result of a contribution of $30,000 the year before  by the US Congress for the purpose of building the first telegra phic line.

Picture 8 – The Telegraph

Picture 8: http://blogs.smithsonianmag.com/design/files/2013/10/telegraph-key-.jpg

And the rest is history. “Today there  are millions of  telegraph wires used across the United States. Messages can now be sent beneath the ocean as well as through the air” (Samuel Morse, 1999).

We learn that the telephone was “First patented in 1876 by Alexander Graham Bell and further developed by many others”. It was “ the first device in history that enabled people to talk directly with each other across large distances” (Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telephone ). The telephone was actually invented for instant communication, even though for many years and in many places, it has yet to fulfill this promise.

The Telephone:

Picture 9 – The Telephone
Picture 9 –

Bell placing the first New York to Chicago telephone call in 1892


When, 32 years ago, I immigrated to the United States from my native Haiti, the telephone was a total luxury for most Haitians. In order to talk to my relatives from the countryside in the outskirts of Leogane City, I had to dispatch a messenger from the Capital City of Port-au-Prince to set an appointment with them at the National Telecommunications Headquarters for the fifteen minute telephone call.

Today, thanks to cellular telephony, it is a different ball game, but not much has changed.

Picture 11 –

Martin Cooper of Motorola made the first publicized handheld mobile phone call on a prototypeDynaTAC model on April 4, 1973. This is a reenactment in 2007

Picture 12 -Current Cell Phones

I can call friends and relatives throughout most of Haiti but there are serious limitations.

The first setback is lack of electricity. Most people keep their phone off unless they are expecting or making a call. Second, the telephone is a very expensive commodity. You pay per minutes as you go. Once the number of minutes purchased have been exhausted, your telephone is dead until it is reloaded with a new phone card. Third and last, your battery can be dead or the telephone physically damaged. Recently, it took me about four weeks to finally reach my cousin James by telephone in Port-au-Prince, The Capital City of Haiti. I had to physically dispatch someone on a few occasions to ask him to call me or to send me another number where he could be reached since the one I had was ringing busy all the times. He finally called me from a friend’s telephone since his was actually out of service due to a defective battery. It may sound like Haiti or any country with such structural weaknesses is somewhere in the neighborhood of Mars in comparison to our comfort zone and life style here in the United States or any developed society. The sad truth is, a blackout of 24 to 36 hours can drag us back to the nightmares.

The Beeper:

Well, the past has those mysterious ways to mingle with the present as the future of  yesterday. A few years ago, I wrote “I am nostalgic of yesterday which used to be tomorrow, and I am fearful that tomorrow will not be another yesterday”.  This blog seems to be justifying my nostalgia, as I recall the birth and death of the beeper as a technology which briefly rekindle the past as a mean of communication.

Some 18 years ago, I had a job as Field Service Engineer with Medical Manager Corporation North-East, in Bloomfield, New Jersey. My assigned territory consisted of medical facilities using the Medical Manager Software in New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut. Car phones were still a luxury, and while my van was equipped with basically all the tools I needed to do my job which consisted of hardware and software installation and troubleshooting, my only mean of communication with customers, supervisors, dispatchers, and fellow technicians were the Beeper or pager (Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pager)

Picture 13 – Beeper/Pager


Picture 14 – Pay Phone (New York)


and Pay Phones on the road, malls, and other public places. Please note that both technologies, beepers and pay phones, are also disappearing species rekindling the past.

 The Fax Machine:

The first Fax Machine was invented in 1843 by Alexander Bain 1843 “by combining telegraph technology and clock. He received a British patent for the fax machine in the same year” (Received from . http://www.whenwasitinvented.org/when-was-fax-machine-invented/ ). The quest for better and faster communication led to the invention of the Fax machine as substitute, alternative, replacement, or competitor to the foot messenger, the telephone, the post office, and other technologies and strategies as cited above.

Picture 15 – Fax Machine

Picture 16 – Inventor of the Fax Machine

Like the telephone, the fax machine was invented for instant transmission of information. Nevertheless, as a result of outsourcing, a fax sent to any big organization today is expected to reach its destination within a time frame of a few hours to days.


Voice Mail, VOIP (Voice Over IP), Digitalization, and Outsourcing as Rekindling History:

I will wrap up this blog with brief references to Emails, Voice Mail, VoIP, Digitalization, and Outsourcing in order illustrate typical technologies that rekindle history in the area of communication and information transmission.


Email is an abbreviation for electronic mail and refers to the “ transmission of messages over communications networks” where “ The messages can be notes entered from the keyboard or electronic files stored on disk (Retrieved from http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/E/e_mail.html ). E-Mail has become so powerful and such a popular communication medium that it is reported to consume up to 28% of a worker’s time” (retrieved from http://mashable.com/2012/08/01/email-workers-time/ ). E-mail’s paternity is attributed to  Raymond Tomlinson who, in 1971, “sent “QWERTYUIOP” as the first network email, and he was the first to connect his computer to his mailbox by using an “@” symbol” (Retrieved from http://mashable.com/2012/09/20/evolution-email/ )

Voice Mail:

Voice Mail was invented by Gordon Mathews for which he obtained a patent in 1982. Originally labeled “Voice Message Exchange”, this invention “managed electronic messages in a digital format” (Retrieved from http://www.everyvoicemail.com/vm-history.htm). While “voice mail has become an integral part of operating a successful business” (http://www.everyvoicemail.com/vm-history.htm) every home phone and cellphone are equipped with voice mail features to enhance the communication experience. Nevertheless, voice mail has become so much a part of our daily life that it has gone as far as inspiring one of the best jokes I have ever heard (Retrieved from http://www.joke-archives.com/spirit/godvoicemail.html) :

We have all learned to live with voice mail as a necessary part of modern life. But you       may have wondered: what if God decided to install voice mail? Imagine praying and            hearing this…

Thank you for calling The Lord’s House. Please select from the following options:

  • Press 1 for General Requests
  • Press 2 for Thanksgiving
  • Press 3 for Complaints
  • Press 4 for Healing
  • Press 5 for Help with the IRS
  • Press 6 for Rain or No Rain
  • Press 7 for Miracles
  • Press 8 for Lottery Winning Numbers
  • Press 9 for All Other Inquiries, or Just to Say “Hi”
  • Press 0 to hear this menu again

What if God used the familiar excuse: “I’m sorry, all the angels are helping other sinners right now. Please stay on the line. Your call is important to us and will be answered in this millennium.

VOIP (Voice Over IP):

Voice over IP (VoIP) is defined as “a methodology and group of technologies for the delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions over Internet Protocol (IP) networks, such as the Internet” (Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voice_over_IP ). Other terms commonly associated with VoIP are IP telephony, Internet telephony, broadband telephony, and broadband phone service.


The term”digitalization” is often used to describe the scanning of analog sources (such as printed photos or taped videos) into computers for editing, but it also can refer to audio (where sampling rate is often measured in kilohertz) and texture map transformations. In this last case, as in normal photos, sampling rate refers to the resolution of the image, often measured in pixels per inch (Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digitizing).


In business, outsourcing refers to “the contracting of a business process to another party.   (Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Outsourcing ). This practice must be distinguished from the term  offshoring which consists of “relocating a business function to another country” (.   (Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Outsourcing)

Rekindling the Past:

While the Telephone, Email, the Fax Machine, Voice Mail were all conceived to speed up the transmission of spoken, recorded, or  written communication, other technologies and strategies such as VoIP,  Digitalization, Outsourcing, and Offshoring came to defeat the objectives achieved in terms efficiency, effectiveness,  and time saving to rekindle technological gains to the performance levels of the past. On this setback I can add that the fragility of our reliance on electricity, our rush in retiring older technologies may not be effective survival strategies.  While there may be value in “The ability to access voice mail and send and receive faxes via your e-mail in-box” (Fox, 2003), nothing seemed to have changed. A few examples will suffice to illustrate:

  1. No Power, No Phone, No Communication, No Food.

Indeed, and for good reasons, I am nostalgic of yesterday for at least the beeper and pay phones in this context where we remain vulnerable to blackout, shortage of  electricity, and outage of cellular signals. When 911 landed on New York City, all cell   phones went dead. Like most parents, and like the foot messengers of the past, I had to walk to pick up my son from school, just across the Manhattan Bridge by the burning  World Trade Center, at Brooklyn Technical College. How do we cook when there is no  electricity, no gaz? Ask any foreign born and you will know. Yes, hurricane Sandy in New York and Connecticut, rekindled my childhood in Haiti. Despite all, no heat, no  electricity, no gaz,  Grandma, to our delight and the amazement of the kids, made great chicken, rice, and beans as we were freezing in deep cold.

  1. Yes to Beeper and Pay Phones:

If James, my cousin in Haiti,  had a beeper, I would not have to wait for a month to get in touch with him. For myself and for my loved ones, I would definitely choose to have a   beeper functionality embedded in my cell phone and laptop for easier and more reliable access in an emergency instead of the tons of digital garbage they come loaded with. But the trouble is, like in the days preceding cellular telephony revolution, they would be no pay phone around to call loved ones.

  1. We will Return you call in 48 to 72 hours:

Most big companies these days have outsourced or offshored certain services to outside or foreign companies due to the cost incentives which usually are a fraction of what it could have been. Such is the case with call centers to which telephone services are routed and managed on wholesale basis. It is like experiencing a U_TURN to the past when upon leaving a message for someone at your bank, the system informs you: “We will return your call in 48 to 72 hours”.

  1. This Email Address is Not Monitored?

I think one of the most insensitive type of communication customers can receive is those auto-reply emails giving a false sense of caring and assurance advising “We have received your email. Please do not reply, this “Email Address is Not Monitored”.

  1. We cannot see your Fax yet, it takes a few hours to days to refresh.

One of the most frustrating experiences with sending faxes relate to having to wait for hours or days before being guaranteed you will not have to send it again. Most big companies outsource their fax service, like their calls in order to save dollars and cents. In the meantime, the customers suffer, being rekindled to the age of the foot messenger, despite the effectiveness and speed of technological innovations.

It seems therefore possible that in many ways, the natives and immigrants of technology may find themselves like homeless home owners, without technology, if we can rekindle the past, and rhyme technology with history  as in “Ain’t Got No Home” by Clarence “Frogman” Henry.


(2011). Couriers enabled bin Laden to hide; Wily messengers were ‘huge pain,’ crucial resource. The Washington Times (Washington, DC).

Fox, P. (2003). His Master’s Fax. Computerworld, 37(46), 22.

Johnson, D. (2001). Messengers of the West – The History of the Pony Express. Monkeyshines On America, 26.

Laureate Education (Producer). (2014h). David Thornburg: Rhymes of history [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Pandarakalam, J. (2011). Medjugorje Apparitional Occurrences: A Parapsychological and Spiritual Analysis. Journal Of Spirituality & Paranormal Studies, 34(2), 100-117.

Riofrio, M. (2013). How to print from anywhere: print from your smartphone, your tablet, or your PC, using printer-vendor apps or third-party options such as Google Cloud Print. PC World, (1). 27.

Samuel Morse. (1999). Monkeyshines on Health & Science, 14.

Tohid, O. (2011). Bin Laden bodyguard’s satellite phone calls helped lead US forces to hiding place. The Christian Science Monitor.

Pandarakalam, J. (2011). Medjugorje Apparitional Occurrences: A Parapsychological and Spiritual Analysis. Journal Of Spirituality & Paranormal Studies, 34(2), 100-117.

Blog Post on Hologram Technology Tetrad

Welcome to my blog on Hologram Technology tetrad. This effort will first offer a definition and a brief examples or illustrations of Hologram Technology. Second it will present table 1 which encapsulates my tetrad on Hologram Technology. Third and last, it will explain what Hologram technology enhances, renders obsolete, rekindles, and reverses based on the tetrad..

1. Definition and Brief Illustrations of Hologram Technology.

According to Robert Workman (retrieved from http://www.livescience.com/34652-hologram.html) “Holography is a photographic technique that records the light scattered from an object, and then presents it in a way that appears three-dimensional”.  In 1971, Dennis Gabor  was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics “for his invention and development of the holographic method” (retrieved from http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1971/ ). The object referred to in the definition can be an actual object or a living or dead individual such has been  the case for hologram on Tupac (retrieved from http://youtu.be/TGbrFmPBV0Y?list=RDeO8AqtNBNaA)

and Michael Jacson (retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jDRTghGZ7XU )


who were brought from their grave to perform to the delight of their respective fans.  In the case of Tupac, International Business, T(2012 reports that he “was resurrected with the use of digital technology and the creation of a Tupc hologram”. Other  of potentials of holograms go beyond entertainment to include other human endeavors such as teaching and learning as illustrated by the story of  Mario Vargas Llosa who won the 2010 Nobel Prize and built his own “home museum” in the house where he was born using holograms (retrieved from http://latino.foxnews.com/latino/lifestyle/2014/09/21/holographic-life-mario-vargas-llosa-museum-recounts-key-life-moments-with-technology/ ):  ” Mario Vargas Llosa, winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature, now has, in the town of Arequipa where he was born, a “museum home” in which he recounts the most significant moments of his life with a series of holograms that are life-size, three-dimensional representations of the author”. Last but not least is the use of holographic technology to bring participants from different geographic locations to the same meeting or conference table (retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jMCR9xep81E )

, doctors and patients from different places to the operating room (retrieved from http://www.cbsnews.com/news/3d-holograms-help-israeli-heart-surgeons/), like we have teachers and learners from anywhere to anywhere learning together. The Future of Holographic Technology seems at this point to be endless with technologies we cannot even dreame of yet (retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AXhGfkGh4vM&feature=youtu.be)

2. My Tetrad on Hologram Technology.

Tetrad Hologram Technology

What Hologram Technology Enhances:

  1. Artistic Performances: Words, Pictures, videos, films, and museum show productions
  1. Reenactment of history for museum exhibits
  1. Resurrection of the dead into seemingly live performances
  1. Multimedia presentations
  1. Optimize teaching and learning
  1. Telemedicine, Cyber Medicine, Telesurgery
  1. Medical imaging Sytems (CATSKING, MRI)
  1. New civil rights and copy rights regulations
  1. Pluripresence of an entertainer, teacher, doctor
What Hologram Technology Obsoletes:     

  1. One dimensional photography
  1. Traditional videography
  1. Traditional radiography
  1. Celebrities death
  2. Doctors’ physical presence with patients
  3. Face to face teaching and learning
  4. Live physical presence of an entertainer, teacher, doctor


What Hologram technology rekindles?

  1. Black and white photography
  1. X-Rays
  1. Face to face interaction
  1. Skype
  1. Business meeting trips
  2. Audio, Online, and video conferencing


What Hologram technology reverses?

  1. Pluripresence
  1. Holographic cameras, photo and video projection tools
  1. Merger of multiple technologies
  1. Online Education
  1. Multiple Dimensions technology
  1. Vision Recovery
  2. Space travel, telepresence

Table 1

 Hologram Technology Impact

1. What Hologram Technology Enhances?

Based on the current state of hologram technology, one can strongly argue that it is pused to positively impact a variety of human activities such as artistic performances including but not limited to music, film, video, and museum shows productions.  History and other curricula can be taught using holographic based multimedia presentations likely to facilitate learning and critical thinking. Telemedicine and medical imaging are but two critical arenas of human existence where hologram technology is having a positive influence. The need to protect the living and the dead from civil and copy rights violations will spur an unprecedented rush for new regulations.

2. What Hologram Technology Obsoletes?      

Hologram technology is bound to render obsolete uni-dimensional artistic performances in music, photography, films, and video productions. With advanced medical imaging systems becoming more and more available, traditional radiography is increasingly becoming a less desirable alternative. The new technologies are likely to crown celebrities to some sense of immortality. The concept of pluripresence for “presence in more than one place at the same time” (retrieved from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/pluripresence?s=t )  instead of physical presence will be a reality for such professionals as doctors, teachers, and entertainers.

3. What Hologram technology rekindles?

The emergence of hologram technology is likely to push the following technologies to the status of tools or processes from the recent past: traditional photography, X-rays face to face interaction, Skype, Business meeting trips, audio, online, and video conferencing.

4. What Hologram technology reverses?

My tetrad on Hologram Technology is anticipating that, like the combination of telephones, cameras, clocks, calendars, web browsers, and other technologies into the cell phone as a single device, hologram technology will be blended with many other technologies such as telepresence, brain downloading and  uploading, time travel, Holographic Television, Teleporting for the creation of a new civilization. That new civilization will be primarily powered by holographic cameras, photos, and video projection tools, Multiple Dimensions Technologies, and  Pluripresence faculties.

With new technologies such as holograms, brain downloading, telepresence, and others, we face a future loaded with opportunities where scholars, scientists, philosophers, and theorist from different historical times could be brought together, even from their graves, to discuss or debate on a variety of issues .


International Business, T. (4). Tupac Hologram At Coachella 2012 Plus Other Great Celebrity Holograms [PHOTOS, VIDEO]. International Business Times.

Thornburg, D. (2013e). Emerging technologies and McLuhan’s laws of media. Lake Barrington, IL: Thornburg Center for Space Exploration.

Cloud Computing as an Emerged Technology

Cloud Computing has evolved to the point of meeting the standard definitions of an emerged technology as suggested by Drs. Elliot Soloway (2014a, 2014b), David Thornburg (2013b, 2014a), and Everett Rogers (2003). Soloway (2014a, 2014b) used such factors as decreasing costs, increasing number of reviews, and increasing popularity translated as access for personal use   as indicators to qualify a technology as an emerged.one. Thornburg (2013b, 2014a) proposed acceptance of a given technology anywhere to determine its emergence status.  Rogers (2003, p. 343) offered the concept of “critical mass” as “the point after which further diffusion becomes self-sustaining”. The research and data on the state of adoption of Cloud Computing all but concur to proclaim Cloud Computing as an emerged technology in the area of Higher Education. This blog aims at investigating the nature of Cloud Computing as an emerged technology in Higher Education by coping with the following agenda:

  1. Provide a definition of cloud computing.
  2. Report the statistics on the rate of adoption of cloud computing in Higher Education.
  3. Explain the problems or challenges that have been associated with this technology,
  4. Explain the societal needs this technology meets and what its benefits are.
  5. Explain the pitfalls of this technology. Share what would make this technology even better, avoiding the identified pitfalls you identified.

1. Definition of Cloud Computing.

According to The National Institute of Standards and Technology (retrieved from http://www.nist.gov/itl/csd/cloud-102511.cfm ) “cloud computing is a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. The term Cloud Computing was first coined in 1997 by Professor Ramnath Chellappa (retrieved from http://www.bus.emory.edu/ram/ ) as a new paradigm to illustrate the provision of computing services via the Internet.  This new paradigm is grounded on five characteristics, and three service models. While the characteristics are defined as on-demand service, broad network access, resource pooling, rapid elasticity, and measured service, the service models refer to IaaS for Infrastructure as a Service; PaaS for platform as a Service, and SaaS for Software as a Service (retrieved from http://www.service-architecture.com/articles/cloud-computing/cloud_computing_definition.html). These characteristics and service models can be further investigated via the internet using Google, YouTube, and other search engines and resources.

Figure 1: From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cloud_computing#mediaviewer/File:Cloud_computing.svg
Figure 1: From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cloud_computing#mediaviewer/File:Cloud_computing.svg


Figure 1: From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cloud_computing#mediaviewer/File:Cloud_computing.svg

2. Statistics on the rate of adoption of cloud computing in Higher Education.

I am here introducing figures 2, 3, and 4 which are slides from a narrated presentation on the topic: A Value Proposition for Adoption of Cloud Computing by Higher Education I uploaded to You tube last year (retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oMoDrylkjAw&feature=youtu.be).

Figure 2 - Cloud_computing


Figure 2: Growth of Cloud Computing

Figure 3 - Cloud_computing


Figure 3: Growth of Cloud Computing Adoption and Diffusion.

Figure 4 - Cloud_computing


Figure 4: Growth of Cloud Computing Adoption between 2011 and 2012.

Figure 5 - Cloud_computing


Figure 5: Growth of Cloud Computing Adoption per sector in 2011 and 2012.

Figure 6 - Cloud_computing


Figure 6: State of Cloud Computing Growth per Application types in Higher Education.

Figures 2 to 6 clearly demonstrate the growth and actual state of Cloud Computing as an emerged technology. The rapid rate of adoption of cloud computing cannot be more convincingly stated than the following argument from forbes.com (retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/sungardas/2013/12/10/seven-cloud-computing-trends-in-2014/ ):

Cloud computing took companies by storm this year, with     nearly 60 percent of current small-to-medium businesses using   cloud services and 72 percent of them  virtualizing significant portions of their servers. 2014 promises even bigger growth as cloud technologies expand on every front from infrastructure and           software-as-a-service to customized security and platform    independence.

Cloud Computing Problems and Challenges.

There have been a number of problems and challenges associated with Cloud Computing. Some of them relate to the law and compliance especially when the data is hosted in a foreign country (Cervone, 2010). Katzan (2010) raised the issue of “the privacy of business and personal information”, while Ogigau-Neamtiu (2012) warned “Organizations which consider adopting cloud based services must also understand the many major problems of information policy, including issues of privacy, security, reliability, access, and regulation”. The bottom line is, the problems and challenges associated with online computing remain a constant challenge primarily geared towards the integrity, the security, and the privacy of data hosted  outside of the organization or outside of the country. I conclude this section with the following list of problems and challenges (retrieved from http://www.moorestephens.com/cloud_computing_benefits_challenges.aspx ):

  1. Data location.
  2. Commingled data.
  3. Cloud security policy / procedures transparency
  4. Cloud data ownership
  5. Lock-in with CSP’s proprietary application programming interfaces (APIs),
  6. Compliance requirements with today’s cloud computing services.
  7. Disaster recovery

Social Needs and Benefits of Cloud Computing.

In contrast to its shortcomings, Cloud Computing does satisfy significant social needs and benefits to its adopters. We live in an era and civilization constantly in need for fast, reliable, ubiquitous access to data, especially via mobile devices at an affordable price. Services such as Carbonide.com, dropbox.com, facebook.com, google.com, amazon.com are examples of how     Cloud Computing has responded to social and societal need. From a cost-saving perspective, Aljabre, A. (2012) Argued, “In today’s business world with the amount of economic downturn and loss happening every day, the need for reliable, yet affordable technology is needed more than ever; cloud computing fills that void”. Below is a list of benefits which summarize the advantages of Cloud Computing (retrieved from (retrieved from http://www.moorestephens.com/cloud_computing_benefits_challenges.aspx ) :

  1. Optimized server utilization
  2. Cost saving
  3. Dynamic scalability
  4. Shortened development life cycle
  5. Reduced time for implementation

Pitfalls of Cloud Computing and recommendations.

Bewley, CTO of uptime software claimed that “Cloud computing has the potential to offer organizations dramatic operational efficiency and cost savings, but when improperly managed it can have disastrous results” (retrieved from http://www.uptimesoftware.com ). ITBusiniessedge.com has identified the following as “six pitfalls you should avoid when migrating information services to the cloud, as (retrieved from http://www.itbusinessedge.com/slideshows/show.aspx?c=86480 ):

      1. Avoid migrating too much or moving too fast in order to prevent loss of control.
      2. Have proper mechanism in place for performance visibility monitoring.
      3. Avoid the “out of sight, out of mind” dilemma of losing track of applications residing on-premise or in the cloud. Be always mindful and knowledgeable of what is going on.
      4. Avoid the “Perils of platform lock-in”. Have a safe strategy to retrieve your data if things go wrong or you decide to leave the cloud vendor.
      5. “Set expectations both internally and externally concerning how applications will perform”. Obtain “mismanaged performance guarantees”.
      6. Avoid compromising “Privacy and Security”. Make sure “the correct processes and performance monitoring are in place”.

In terms of recommendation, this blog is proposing adoption of these measures by www.ITBusinessedge.com in addition to the following:

      1. Have competent legal representation experienced with Cloud Computing credentials to negotiate your contract with full participation of your IT Department.
      2. Conduct a thorough search of the market in order to select a track proven Cloud Computing vendor.
      3. Demand that a copy of periodic backup of your data is regularly routed in retrieval format, a one or more secure locations of your organization.

I am concluding this blog with table 1 which offers a list of some important links about Cloud Computing:

Site/Company Name Site URL Site Description
Google https://groups.google.com/forum/#!forum/cloud-computing Google Cloud Computing Discussion forum
IBM http://www.ibm.com/cloud-computing/us/en/index.html?cmp=usbrb. The IBM Cloud Computing.
IBM Workload Automation http://www.service-architecture.com/articles/cloud-computing/cloud_computing_definition.html Cloud computing definition.
National Institute of Standards and Technology http://www.nist.gov/itl/csd/cloud-102511.cfm Cloud computing definition.
Business Insider http://www.businessinsider.com/the-15-most-valuable-cloud-computing-companies-2013-7?op=1 The 15 most valuable-cloud computing companies

Table 1



Aljabre, A. (2012). Cloud computing for increased business value. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(1)  Retrieved from        http://search.proquest.com/docview/913056373?accountid=14872

Carr, Nicholas. 2014. “Cloud computing.” Encyclopædia Britannica Research Starters, EBSCOhost (accessed September 14,   2014.

Cervone, H. F. (2010). An overview of virtual and cloud          computing. OCLC Systems and Services, 26(3), 162-165.          doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/10650751011073607

Hajibaba, M., & Gorgin, S. (2014). A Review on Modern Distributed        Computing Paradigms: Cloud Computing, Jungle Computing and   Fog Computing. Journal of Computing & Information       Technology, 22(2), 69-84. doi:10.2498/cit.1002381

Khalid, A. A., & Shahbaz, M. M. (2013). CLOUD COMPUTING TECHNOLOGY: SERVICES AND OPPORTUNITIES. Pakistan Journal Of Science,65(3), 348-351.

Katzan, H.,Jr. (2010). On the privacy of cloud computing. International    Journal of Management and Information Systems,14(2), 1-12. Retrieved from          http://search.proquest.com/docview/365828926?accountid=14872

Laureate Education (Producer). (2014a). David Thornburg: What is emerging technology? [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Laureate Education (Producer). (2014b). Elliot Soloway: Emerging vs.  emerged technologies [Audio file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations (5th ed.) New York, NY:  Free Press.

Ogigau-Neamtiu, F. (2012). CLOUD COMPUTING SECURITY  ISSUES. Journal of Defense Resources Management, 3(2), 141- 148. Retrieved from          http://search.proquest.com/docview/1288095353?accountid=14872

Cloud Computing in Higher Education

Please come back for new Blogs on the following issues:

1. Cloud Computing in Higher Education

2. Has the beeper been reincarnated or resurrected into the telephone?

3. Good Morning Les Francais. C’est pas du Francais, It is English.

4. The pain from pens. Are they dying?

5. What is BYOD? What does it mean for us?

6. What is the best password policy? A personal algorithm?

Thank you!

Video Project on Open Source Technologies in Higher Education

This blog introduces a Video Overview of Open Source Technologies in Higher Education. I would like to apologize for the current quality of the video. This is a work in progress on a project where again, the technology showed its muscles for having been taken for granted at the expense of scholarly research and literary endeavors. The major obstacles I experienced in this process were videotaping techniques, sound, lighting, timing, and last but not least, finding the proper free software to translate multiple video clips from one format, .MTS in this case (which I am told is very old) to .MOV for the sake of “newer modernity!”. I am contemplating extending the nature and   scope of this project to a 30 minutes documentary as a justified call to Higher Education for adoption of the open source paradigm. Nevertheless, I have something up and running, A 6 minutes video presentation covering the topic of Open Source Technologies in Higher Education. The agenda includes the following:

1- A pragmatic Definition of Open Source Technologies.
2- A brief Timeline of Open Source Technologies.
3- Overview of Research on Open Source Technologies in Higher Education.
4- Administrative and Academic Applications in Higher Education.
5- Open Source Controversies – The Software Wars.
6- Open “Source” Opportunities – MOOCs, for Massive Open Online Courses.
6- Value Proposition for Adoption by Higher Education.

Open Source In Higher Education
Open Source Technologies

The bottom line remains the value proposition captured in the mind map below which is followed by an annotated bibliography which constitutes the scholarly foundation for adoption of Open Source Technologies by Higher Education.Value_Proposition_for_Adoption_Open_Source_Technologies_in_Higher_Education

Annotated Bibliography

Article # Title, Reference, and Summary
1 Title: New Options for Your Campus
Reference: New Options for Your Campus. (2012). Business Officer, 46(3), 44-45
Theme: Administrative Computing, TCO, Community Software, Open Source, Kuali Financial System (KFS). A
Summary and Annotation:This paper introduces actual application of the community software concept with the  successful implementation of the Kuali FinancialSystem (KFS) (Retrieved from www.kuali.org.) at The University of California, Indiana University, Michigan State University and the Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, New Jersey. The University of California and Indiana University report respectively 8 million and 17 million cost savings in comparison with alternatives commercial software. The paper further emphasizes integration of mobile and Ipad initiatives to meet information access and financial reporting needs on campus.This article illustrates the urgency for Collaboration and cooperation among institutions of Higher Learning as a mean to achieve administrative efficiency.  The quick jump from reporting about the Kuali system to mobile computing and Ipad initiatives seems to be out of context. This is nevertheless understandable since the paper is basically reporting the issues debated by representatives the National Association of Colleges and University Business Officers (Retrieved from www.nacubo.org) during its annual meeting in 2012.
2 Title:. Pay Nothing? Easier Said Than Done.
Reference: AZEVEDO, A. (2013). Pay Nothing? Easier Said Than Done. Chronicle Of Higher   Education, 59(21), A18-A19.
Theme: Free and open text books
Annotation and Summary:This paper discusses the challenges top offering free and open textbooks to college and university students in the United States. Issues involving production quality, and adoption by both students and educators are perceived as major roadblocks for success. The tradeoff to write a book for free in open source technology paradigm and to do the same for free is definitely not an attractive option.  The paper invites consideration of the possible influential impact of state government intervention for the production and offering of free text books using an effort in California as illustration. But the concerns over incentives, quality, and adoption remain.The paper raises issues of significant concern such as lack of incentives and interests of faculty in writing free textbooks, the poor quality of production, and the low adoption rate of such products by faculty, and students as major obstacle to the success of free open textbooks in Higher Education. Nevertheless, I suspect that paying faculty to contribute in the production of open source textbooks from the same logic they are paid to teach could be further help in the promotion and adoption of Open Source Textbooks in Higher Education.
3 Title: Creating Higher Education Academic and Information Technology Resources in an International Context
Reference: BARON, J., WILLIS, J., & LEE, R. (2010). Creating Higher Education Academic and Information Technology Resources in an International Context. Computers In The Schools,  27(3/4), 288-308. doi:10.1080/07380569.2010.523885 
Theme: Open Education, Collaboration, Higher Education
Summary and Annotation:This inquiry is grounded on the contribution of such contemporary factors as globalization, the internet, technological innovations, and the Open Source movement  in fostering international collaboration and cooperation among institutions of higher learning for the creation of Academic and Information Technology Resources for Higher Education.  Such resources include but are not limited to software, textbooks, courseware, and course management systems under the guidance of open source, open access, and open education philosophies as alternatives to the expensive proprietary market.  The paper defines open source software as products developed “through a collaborative model of development that involves a community of geographically dispersed contributors”, distributed under specific license agreements, and which can be modified due to the availability of the code. The paper traces the evolution of Open Source Software to the early days of the computer in the 1950s and 60s to be developed into an open philosophical approach encompassing new forms of open-source collaboration which led to “open educational resource projects, such as Connexions” (Retrieved from (http://cnx.rice.edu) and OpenCourseWare (OCW) project (http://ocw.mit.edu).  The paper discusses a number of open source projects with related references. “These include the Sakai Foundation (http://www.sakaiproject.org) that supports work on the Sakai package for content management and course management, Connexions which is a project at Rice University to support open access e-publishing and course management (http://cnx.rice.edu) that is supported by the Hewlett-Packard Foundation, and the Kuali Foundation (http://www.kuali.org/) that manages work on a suite of administrative software packages for higher education”.  The inquiry provides a vast array of current efforts and projects with a global appeal such as SourceForge (http://www.sourceforge.org), the Open Education Resources unit ( http://oerwiki.iiep-unesco.org /) in the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the OpenCourseWare Consortium (www.ocwconsortium.org ) just to name a few.The paper rightly considers Open Source Software OSS as the prototype for the organization of new types of collaboration. Absent from consideration are references to collaboration with foreign educational entities. Nevertheless, the paper remains a significant contribution in the literature on the impact of The Open Source Movement on Higher Education from a global perspective.
4 Title: Open Source Software in Computer Science and IT Higher Education: A Case Study
Reference:Dan R., L., & Robert S., L. (2011). Open Source Software in Computer Science and IT Higher Education: A Case Study. International Journal Of Advanced Computer Sciences And Applications, (1), 
Theme:  Open Source Software  in Computer Science Education
Summary and Annotation:This study focuses on the advantages of using open source software for academic purposes in comparison with standard proprietary software.  The paper is divided into four sections which include background of the open source movement, identification of different open source licenses, the impact of open source licenses, the use of open source in teaching computer science courses, and  a comparison between open source versus proprietary software on the ground of cost, appeal to students and ease of use. On all factors, the outcome supports the use and adoption of open source. . While the cost of acquisition of the open source software is free, implementation and administration cost vary depending on the circumstances while overall costs remain lower for faculty and students. Open source software appeal more to students due to the academic roots of open source software, the lower cost, and the availability of the source code. The study documents the following as advantages of open source:  readiness for research, implementation,  and development of “new ideas”, portability to different operating systems, the  availability of the source code for the newest version of a specific application, and the vocation of open source to promote entrepreneurship without startup costs. The main disadvantages. The study finds that “The main disadvantage in using open source software is the fact that Linux usability on laptops is seriously affected by the lack hardware drivers especially for wireless, graphic cards and suspend/sleep functionality in laptops”.This study stands as a major contribution on the values and merit of open source technologies in Higher Education classrooms. While acknowledging the challenges of open source software in the classroom, the article rightly suggests mixing proprietary and open source resources to better educate Computer Science students.
 5 Title: Adopting Open-Source Software Applications in U.S. Higher Education: A Cross-Disciplinary Review of the Literature
Reference: van Rooij, S. (2009). Adopting Open-Source Software Applications in U.S. Higher Education: A Cross-Disciplinary Review of the Literature. Review Of Educational Research, 79(2), 682-701.Summary:This paper was written to support  the adoption of open source software for academic and administrative purposes by US institutions of higher learning as a more flexible and less costly venue. The focus is on using open source applications such as Moodle (retrieved from www.moodle.org ) Sakai (retrieved from  www.sakaiproject.org) and the  Kualy Financial Systems (retrieved from www.kuali.org/kfs). Upon introduction of a definition of open source from the perspective of codes understandable by the human eyes to “the concept of the freedom to run, modify, and distribute copies of a program, either free of charge or for a fee.”, the article offers a literature review focused “only on open-source software at the application layer, with emphasis on systems that support teaching and learning”. The method and scope consisted of key words searches of literary sources for results to be analyzed using the NVIVO, “a software program for the management and analysis of text data”. The findings reveal that the literature is primarily dominated by “(a) social and philosophical benefits, (b) software development methodology benefits, (c) security and risk management benefits, (d) software adoption life cycle benefits, and (e) total cost of ownership benefits”. In addition, the inquiry finds that open source is primarily assumed to an issue of concern for technologists while this is just not the case when it comes to administrative and educational use.While this study reveals a gap in the literature when it comes to enabling “sound pedagogy or enables institutions to achieve a balance of sound pedagogy and technical efficiency”, it establishes the dominating role of Sakai, Kuali, and Moodle as reliable resources for further research.
Title: Open-Source Learning Management Systems: A Predictive Model for Higher Education
Reference: van Rooij, S. (2012). Open-Source Learning Management Systems: A Predictive Model for Higher Education.        Journal Of Computer Assisted Learning, 28(2), 114-125.
6 Theme:  Criteria for adoption of open source LMS by Higher Education.
Summary:This quantitative study examines the selection criteria used by an institution of higher education for adoption of an open-source learning management system (LMS). Building on prior studies regarding such efforts in higher education a survey of 285 Chief Information Officers and Chief Academic Officers from US institutions was conducted in order to determine patterns, strategies, and criteria used in such contexts. First, the paper introduces Open Source Software (OSS) and offers comprehensive inventory of the best know open source learning management systems currently available. The list includes the following: Moodle (http://www.moodle.org) with 30,000 users, Sakai (http://www.sakaiproject.org) which features “generic collaboration along Claroline (http://www.claroline.net), available in more than 35 languages and used in 80 countries; .LRN (http://www.dotlrn.com ), a system thathas e-commerce and project management applicationsbuilt in;  ATutor (http://www.atutor.ca ), developed in Canada and includes more than 17 000 registered user sites, and; Bodington (http://www.bodington.org ), developed in the U.K. and implemented at the University of Leeds and the University of Oxford. Second, the paper presents current LMS evaluation models with an alternative approach. Third, the method, statistical analysis, and results are introduced. The paper ends with acknowledgement of the limitations of the study and actual conclusion. Bottom line,“The present research revealed that an institution’s Carnegie Classification, previous experience with OSS, focus on student learning, and commitment to organizational self-reliance were all predictive of the institution’s decision to opt in or opt out of an open-source LMS”.This inquiry offers a solid frame of reference with regard to the criteria for adoption of open source learning management system by higher education. One might surmise that the limitations spelled in the study might create a built-in bias jeopardizing the objectivity and reliability of the study. The study nevertheless stands as a strong guide for higher education in the adoption of open source learning management systems.

This author has commented on the following blogs:
Roberts, Alicia – Video Project on Plagiarism: http://msaroberts2003.blogspot.com/

Smith, John – Video project on Critical Thinking: http://teachinglearningatadistance.blogspot.com/

Smith, Margaret – Video Project on Online Gaming: http://emmi143.blogspot.com/

Amy, Lori: Video Project on Virtual  Worlds to Enhance Learning http://loriannsblackboard.blogspot.com 

Prescott, Ellen: Video on Discussion forums to enhance Math Education  http://ellenprescott.blogspot.com

Arthur, Petti: Video on Teachers’ collaboration to enhance Students’ scores; http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FcDL5tHtwhU&feature=youtu.be

Static Versus Dynamic Technology Media For Distance Education

Static versus Dynamic Technology Media for Distance Education

Mind_Map_on_Technology_and_Media_in_Distance_EducatFig: 1

Moller (2008) proposes a continuum from static, middle, and dynamic to distinguish the characteristics of technology and media for Distance Education. Static technologies provide access to content and enable communication and some degree of limited collaboration. Static media remain constant and stable upon creation or enable one way communication. In this category we find books, movies and videos, podcasts, journals, static websites, magazines, newspapers, broadcast tv or radio programming, and Fax transmission just to name a few. On the dynamic end of the spectrum we find interactive tools which enable collaboration, communication, and facilitate interaction with content. The mind map introduced in Figure 1 captures both static and dynamic tools and classify them respectively by category as content, collaboration, and communication media. Examples of Dynamic Technology Media include blogs, wikis, mind tools, social networking sites, interactive databases, interactive websites, bulletin boards, and emails. Please note the difference between a static website as explained by http://technogenxx.blogspot.com/2012/03/what-is-static-website-with-example.html and a dynamic website as illustrated by http://www.computerhope.com/jargon/d/dynasite.htm.

While I acknowledge and embrace the effectiveness of interactive and dynamic tools in improving the learning process by enabling the creation of knowledge “through analysis and argumentation” (Moller, 2008), I somewhat disagree with Moller (2008) when he seems to demean the educational value of static technologies which include books, movies, and Podcasts by stressing:

These technologies, while efficient at broadcasting information, do little to help     learners build their own knowledge. At best, static technologies allow learners to      capture information.

During most of my life, I have used primarily static media for learning, and I believe that the same is true for much of our civilization. I am a believer in the power, originality, elasticity, and capabilities of the human mind to achieve marvels from the “Information Given”.   As a civilization, we have achieved milestones of progress by just blending the given, learned, or read information in the creative factory of our brain for a targeted purpose. May be this is what Jerome Bruner (Bruner, 1984) meant when he wrote:

“Being able to “go beyond the information” given to “figure things out” is one of the few untarnishable joys of life. One of the great triumphs of learning (and of teaching) is to get things organised in your head in a way that permits you to know more thaN you “ought” to. And this takes reflection, brooding about what it is that you know.     The enemy of reflection is the breakneck pace – the thousand pictures.”

Nevertheless, when I consider my trajectory as a learner who completed High School in Haiti more than thirty years ago, undergraduate education at the State University of New York about twenty years ago, graduate education at Columbia University about four years ago, and who is currently pursuing doctoral studies in Educational Technology at Walden University, I can situate my learning comfort zone within the entire static-middle-dynamic spectrum of technology and media for distance learning as depicted in figure 1 and asserted by Moller (2008).

While writing this blog, I felt the need for a deeper apprehension of the static and dynamic concepts within the framework of technology and media tools for distance education. There seems to be a great level of ambiguity between the term “dynamic” which tends to define something that is changing or in constant state of transition and the term “interactive” which translates a process of active engagement between at least two entities. I accept the natural interactive state of dynamic tools. Can static tools hold some type of interactive nature? Blogger tommydtr22 posits: “Depending how you view it, all media is Dynamic”. (Retrieved from http://atmindsedge.wordpress.com/2013/02/24/disconnection-in-education/).  What do you think?


Bruner, Jerome (1984) Beyond the Information Given:                                 

 Studies in the Psychology of Knowing.

New York: Harper Collins Publishing

Moller, L. (2008). Static and dynamic technological tools. [Unpublished Paper].

This author has commented on the following blogs:
Roberts, Alicia : http://msaroberts2003.blogspot.com/
Smith, John: http://teachinglearningatadistance.blogspot.com/
Smith, Margaret: http://emmi143.blogspot.com/

Tools for Effective Instruction Engagement in Online Instruction

Joseph K. Vermeille
Dear Professor, Fellow Learners:

Please excuse the fact that my assignment is being late because I was really busy planning the blessing of my marriage for Friday April 26th, 2013 and ended up losing my laptop on my way to honeymooning from New York to Fort-Lauderdale the next day. I am currently working using a pc rarely available in the lobby of my hotel. I sincerely apologize as I am requesting and welcoming your understanding.

Thank you:

Joseph K. Vermeille

A graphic illustration of the tools available for Effective Instruction Engagement in Online Instruction


The graphic above illustrates the three critical components online instructors need to use on order to effectively engage learners in the teaching and learning process. In addition to syllabi and rubrics to inform learners of the learning itinerary and assessment methodology at hand, the content tools include online courses, printed, digital, audio, video, multimedia, and digital mechanisms used to encapsulate, capture, share, and disseminate knowledge. As a mean to enable effective interaction among learners and between learners and instructor, communication includes online courses, electronic and social media. Last but not least, the collaboration tools permit instructors to nurture learners with the critical team work skills required for survival in the 21st Century economy. A wide variety of tools and processes, including but not limited to Google Docs, Box.net, Mindmeister, currently, blogs, and wikis, are currently available.


This author has commented on the following blogs on collective assessment.
Roberts, Alicia: http://msaroberts2003.blogspot.com/
Smith, John : http://teachinglearningatadistance.blogspot.com/
Smith, Margaret: http://emmi143.blogspot.com/